A Status Ailment is a status that inflicts characters and causes them to behave abnormally, sometimes forcing a player to change tactics.
The Bow's special attacks are known to cause status ailments naturally, and are the only human weapon to do this. Certain Specialists can also increase the chance of causing a status effect, while other Specialists can decrease the chance that the player's character will be inflicted with the status ailments.
The chance of causing a status ailment is completely based on the level of the special that the character uses, or the level of the specialist in a normal attack, minus the target's ailment resistance. Be forewarned, some of the higher tier creatures can start out with an immunity of 99, which means that they are completely immune to any status ailments caused by specials or specialists below level 10, and even then, it will only affect them a tiny bit. Getting the special or specialist to a higher level will have a better effect.
Below is the list of all the Status Ailments in the Disgaea series: